The more I dive the sites around Koh Tao, the more familiar the creatures that call them home become. At first a seemingly alien world with equally alien faces, soon became a familiar environment that I felt a part of. When you visit these sites regularly, patterns in the life under the surface are easily evident. Whether it is the places certain fish prefer to call home or their social habits interacting with one another.

Knowing the places that certain fish like to live makes the job of a Divemaster much easier. The more locations and types of homes I know the more I can share them with the people I take diving. Apart from making the search for certain species easier; being able to visit the same fish time and time again you see how they change and grow. Such as seeing the growth of their families, growth in their size and sometimes changes in colour. However, you also see these places once called home become vacant. Either to other inhabitants or to none at all due to natural or human destruction. A part of the life you realize can not always be avoided.

Socially, these creatures are as equally interesting. You notice how some have very symbiotic relationships that are extremely beneficial to both organisms. One that stands out most predominantly is the relationship between that of the Goby and Pistol Shrimp. These two creatures work together with great success. The Pistol Shrimp is always hard at work pushing sand and debris out from their hole on the ocean floor. While the Goby patiently watches for any potential predators and quickly warns the Shrimp if anything comes too close to their home. Both then retreat back into the safety of their hole they call home until it is safe again for the work to resume. This is only one example of many relationships that exist in life amongst the reefs. gobi and shrimp

I am very thankful of having had the pleasure of becoming so accustomed to the life in the waters surrounding Koh Tao. I feel equally at home under the water as I do on land. Every turn, whether it be down a street or around the next rock I seem to always be greeted with familiar faces.


Nuidbranches and Flat Worms

So last week we looked at Trigger Fish in our big 5 count down..this week we are celebrating the mighty Nuidbranches and Flat Worms!

Completely different animals, about as close relatives as humans and sea urchins (or even farther apart!) and both equally amazing so I had to include both! The more I have read up on these gems the more determined I have become to seek them out whilst diving!

So what is a Nudibranch you may be wondering? Well in fact they are actually sea slugs that are members of the class Gastropoda in the Phylum Mollusca, which also includes snails, slugs, limpets and sea hairs. All nudibranchs are sea slugs, but not all sea slugs are nudibranchs. They can be as small as 0.5cm and can grow up to about 60cm. They are beautifully coloured little creatures. They are shell-less and boneless.

Over 3,000 species of nudibranchs exist, and most live in shallow, tropical waters. They can be anywhere from a quarter of an inch to 12 inches long and can weigh up to 3.3 pounds. These sea slugs spend their time sliding on their bellies around their habitat in search of snacks. The animals have a set of curved teeth, which they use to eat coral, sponges, and fish eggs off the ocean floor. Nudibranchs use tentacles on their heads to poke around for grub. The nudibranch’s meals don’t just satisfy its hunger—the food also gives the animal its colouring. When the sea slug eats, it absorbs and displays its prey’s pigment—the substance that gives the prey its colour. Some nudibranchs also absorb toxins from certain prey and secrete the poison from their own skin. This allows them to fend off predators such as fish.

So the Nudibranch is stunning, resourceful, and it recycles? This slug sounds far from sluggish! flatworm

FUN FACT! It has been known that some humans eat these creatures, although when the experience is likened to "chewing an eraser" it's not high on the list of delicacies I would like to try!

We already learnt about the nudibranches, which a lot of people think are relatives to the flatworms, but they are actually a completely different species with very different roots. What they do have in common though is that they come in a very broad variety of families and can be as colourful as the nudies too. Flatworms are soft bodied invertebrates and over half of them live as parasites. Some of them are very dangerous for humans such as the tapeworms, or more specifically, schistosomes. Another part of the flatworm family live on land but the ones we want to focus on are those lighting up our underwater world with their weird looks and vibrant colours

Most flatworms only have one opening (mouth) to feed which is then also used to dump processed food. This means that most of them can unlike me not eat continuously but have to feed and then wait until all the food is processed through their network of guts extending through their body. However some exceptions - usually found in the bigger worms - do exist and they do have one or more anuses to get rid of the processed foods. Most of the time flatworms crawl on the bottom (preferably sand) by using their muscles in combination with their body fluids to apply more pressure to their body. Some of them can use the same system to even swim freely in the water which is one of the most amazing sightings.

Now how do the flatworms reproduce? Again there are some very diverse strategies. The bigger species which are the ones we observe underwater mate by penis fencing. They are born as males but also have female reproductive cells. The two males duel each other trying to impregnate each other while the loser will adapt the female role and develop the eggs. This means it will have a higher demand on nutrients and lower chances of survival in the ocean.
In most species, when the eggs hatch "miniature males" emerge and go on their quest for reproduction.

You can easily tell which is which by observing three simple characteristics:
1- Flatworms are "flat", thin, while nudibranchs show some more thickness
2- Nudibranchs have their main sensory organs, the rhinophores (the two "antennae" on the head)
3- Flatworms move a lot faster than nudibranchs.

Another important aspect of flatworms is they have no circulatory nor respiratory systems... so there are no gills! Pretty cool stuff! You can see them everywhere around Koh Tao but keep your eyes peeled for flat worms swimming, it is truly a memorizing experience.


After becoming a PADI Divemaster I am fortunate enough to be able to explore the ocean almost every day. Even after hundreds of dives each one feels just as amazing as the last.

However, there is one exception to this; whalesharks. On some rare occasions whalesharks seem to make their way to Koh Tao in an almost migratory way. I was lucky enough to see four of the amazing creatures within the span of only 5 days. Usually, encounters with these beautiful creatures are much less common. When diving with these fish, time seems to stand still in awe of the way the massive shark can move so effortlessly through the water. Whaleshark

Like every person has unique finger prints; whalesharks are very much the same. The spots above their pectoral fins never change throughout their lives. Making it possible to track the lives and movements of these creatures over the span of their life. Which is crucial to learning more about such a gentle and elusive animal.

I hope to continue being able to swim with these giants in their natural environment for years to come. Every time I descend I experience something so amazing and unique. Here at Scuba Junction Diving we're lucky enough to have these experiences on a daily basis. So why not come have some of your own?

Nic, Padi Divemaster.


At Scuba Junction Diving we love diving and we especially love marine life! Before every one of your dives you will have a dive briefing that will cover all the important stuff related to your dive but also all the cool fish that you can spot! So what can you see?!

Colourful angelfish, butterflyfish, bannerfish and stingrays are abundant on the reefs as well as hard corals such as table coral, staghorn coral, mosaic and mushroom corals are predominant within this region of the Gulf of Thailand. Koh Tao provides the perfect opportunity for divers to observe the relationships that make up the marine ecosystem.

So you thought the Big 5 only existed on safari?! Let this big 5 introduce you to the big 5 of Koh Tao?! Its hard to choose as there is just so much to see!

Each week we will count down the big 5 of Koh Tao. Whether you are trying diving for the first time or have more experience. All of these wonderful creatures are right on Koh Tao's doorstep. But there can only be one sure way to see these beautiful creatures and that's to get your self over here and do some diving!

So lets start with our first contender!

The mighty Trigger Fish!

There are 40 species of triggerfish that are scattered throughout the world’s seas, the largest of all is the Stone triggerfish, which reaches up to 3.3 feet long, (thats over a meter!) found in the Eastern Pacific from Mexico to Chile. They are beautiful fish with various colourful markings mainly consisting of lines and spots.

Triggerfish have an oval shaped body, with a large jaw and teeth adapted for their typical diet which consists of bottom dwelling creatures that generally have either spines or shells for protection.
These bottom dwellers dig out prey, such as crabs and worms, by flapping away debris with their fins and sandblasting with water squirted from their mouths. They also use very tough teeth and jaws to take on sea urchins, flipping them over to get at their bellies, which are armed with fewer spines. Triggerfish wreak such havoc on less fortunate reef dwellers that smaller fish often follow them to feast on their leftovers.

Triggerfish tend to be solitary but meet at traditional mating grounds according to timetables governed by moons and tides. The males of many species appear to establish territories on these spawning grounds and prepare sea floor nests that will house tens of thousands of eggs. Females share care of the eggs until they hatch, blowing water on them to keep them well supplied with oxygen. In some species males are known to maintain a harem of female mates.

Triggerfish are attractive animals and some species have become too popular for their own good. They are sought for the aquarium trade, which has prompted fishermen to gather even threatened species from the wild. Researchers are working to raise triggerfish in captivity so that wild populations might more likely be left alone.

Our shallow coastal waters and Coral Reefs make an ideal home for Yellow Margin, Pink Tails and the most common species in Koh Tao - the Titan Triggerfish. trigger

The Titian trigger fish can grow up to 75cm in length and have a reputation for being a little feisty! During mating season they have been known to swim at divers with their “trigger up” with the intention to warn you off the nest they have built in the sand! No worries if this happens, their territory works in a cone shape to the surface so just lie back kick and they will soon enough leave you to enjoy your dive! There is no reason to fear them.

Just sit back, watch and enjoy this majestic fish in its natural habitat. It really is a case of clash of the Titans!

A Trigger fish can rotate each of their eyeballs independently!

As new divers maybe you know what you SHOULD be doing, but do you know what you SHOULDN'T be doing after diving? In fact, this is not just for new divers, as some of these facts many don't know. Planning a dive requires a great deal of preparation combined with numerous safety checks that must be completed beforehand. This process is stressed and explained in great detail during open water certification. However, the safety process after diving is not as thorough and new divers may not know what should not be done after a dive. Here is a list of 4 things you should not do right after diving. 
1. Fly
Flying after scuba diving is one of the more widely known risks to divers. This issue comes up frequently in the diving world because divers want to take full advantage of diving trips and get the most amount of diving time in while they can. The main reason for this warning is not the flying itself but the pressure inside the airplane’s cabin.  Air pressure lessens when you fly. If you rode in a plane right after diving the increase in altitude would result in a drop in pressure which is comparable to a fast ascension while diving. The longer the dive and the deeper you go the more nitrogen is absorbed into your blood. Upon returning to the surface the pressure reduces and the nitrogen reverts to gas bubbles. Decompression needs to be done slowly so the nitrogen can pass back out through your lungs. If you ascend too fast the nitrogen can form bubbles in your blood which can be painful and possibly fatal (think of opening a bottle of soda).  Waiting the correct amount of time before flying will reduce the nitrogen in your blood. The general rule that seems to be widely agreed upon is that you should wait 12 hours after a single no-decompression dive, 18 hours after multiple dives or multiple days of diving and at least 24 hours after dives requiring decompression stops. As a general rule it is recommended to wait 24 hours before flying after doing any type of diving. This rule covers all types of dives and adds extra time as a safeguard for peace of mind.
2. Zip-lining
Ziplining usually occurs on a mountain or elevated area and should be avoided for 24 hours after a dive due to the altitude. With ziplining,  going to a higher altitude may trigger decompression sickness. Many ziplining companies will clearly state they will not allow people to zipline if they have been scuba diving with the past 24 hours. Sounds strange, but makes sense.
3. Heavy Drinking
I know this may be a controversial subject for many but It is no secret that many divers enjoy drinks after a day of diving. Drinking alcohol immediately after a dive is not recommended because alcohol may affect the way that our body eliminates that excess nitrogen. Dehydration is one of the main causes in decompression sickness, and drinking alcohol is one of the most efficient ways to dehydrate ourselves. Another important reason to avoid heavy drinking after a dive is because being heavily intoxicated can mask the true symptoms of decompression sickness and adequate medical care may be sought too late. To avoid any problems, drink plenty of water before and after diving to combat dehydration. Most of all try and wait a few hours before drinking alcohol to prevent any mishaps.
4. Mountain Climbing
Mountain climbing should be avoided in the first 24 hours after a dive. This again is due to the change in altitude when ascending a mountain. As with flying and ziplining,  changes in altitude can cause decompression sickness. If you are planning to also go mountain climbing along with scuba diving, do the mountain climbing first to avoid any potential dangers.  It is perfectly safe to go climbing before a dive and this may be an easy solution to do enjoy your trip while also being safe
The bottom line is that altitude exposure is altitude exposure. There are really no exceptions to the rules and ignoring them only increases the dangers of decompression sickness.  Rule of thumb - keep your feet planted on the ground after you dive — if only for a little while.
5. Massage
Getting a massage after a long day of diving may seem like a great way to unwind but massage should MAYBE be avoided after diving. Massage will increase blood flow and this in turn can possibly move smaller nitrogen bubbles into one large bubble, although there have been no known cases of DCS because of massage. Deep tissue massage is strongly advised against because it has the potential to cause soreness in the body which may lead to misdiagnosis of decompression sickness after a dive.
DAN quotes " there is no clear sense of what massage might do and this effect would likely vary depending on dive profiles and intensity of the massage. We should note that massage has not been confidently associated with any of the cases of DCS that have come to us, and we are not aware of any study done to address this question. The clearest piece of advice is that deep tissue massage should probably be avoided, so that the potential of post-dive pain and diagnostic confusion are minimized.